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Full text of "Annual crops for forage in the Alberta parklands."

■ * ■ Agriculture 



Canada 

Research Direction generale 
Branch de la recherche 

Technical Bulletin 1 988-1 E 



88/02/18 






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OC5 




Annual crops for forage in 
the Alberta parklands 




Canada 






% ueR«« ■ B 



Annual crops for forage 
in the Alberta parklands 



B. BERKENKAMP 

Research Station, Agriculture Canada 

Melfort, Saskatchewan 

J. MEERES 

Research Station, Agriculture Canada 

Lacombe, Alberta 

Technical Bulletin 1988- IE 



Research Branch 
Agriculture Canada 
1988 



Copies of this publication are available from 

Director 

Research Station 

Research Branch, Agriculture Canada 

Box 1240 

Melfort, Sask. 

SOE 1A0 

Produced by Research Program Service 

©Minister of Supply and Services Canada 1988 
Cat. No.: A54-8/1988-1E 
ISBN: 0-662-15764-8 



The dots on the map represent Agriculture 
Canada research establishments. 



Ill 



CONTENTS 



Summary, iv 
Resume, v 
Introduction, 1 

Yields of annual crops as silage, 1 
Locations, 2 

Lacombe, 2 

Westlock, 2 

Olds-Didsbury, 2 

Bluff ton, 2 

Chedderville-Leslieville, 3 

Smoky Lake , 3 

Vegreville, 3 
Quality, 3 
Pasture, 3 
Cultivar trials, 4 

Oat, 4 

Barley, 4 

Wheat, rye, triticale, 4 

Sunflower, 5 

Faba bean, 5 

Pea, 5 

Corn, 5 

Proso and Foxtail millet, 5 

Italian ryegrass, 6 

Winter cereal pastures, 6 

Brassica species, 6 



IV 



SUMMARY 

The annuals for forage program was begun in 1979 and completed in 1983. 
Work in the southern part of Alberta, covering the Brown and Dark Brown soil 
zones, both irrigated and dryland, was carried out from the Alberta 
Horticulture Research Centre at Brooks. The Black and Gray Wooded soil zones 
were covered from the Agriculture Canada Research Station, Lacombe, by the use 
of six off-station locations. The productivity of various crops and cultivars 
was evaluated at several locations, and the following conclusions were drawn. 

« Oat was the highest yielding silage crop. Foothill was the best cultivar, 
particularly on Gray Wooded soils, followed by Fraser, Laurent, Sentinel, 
and Grizzly. 

• Sunflower was the second highest yielding crop, but it cannot be 
recommended because of extreme variability in yield between locations and 
years, as well as difficulties in harvesting with cereal or haying 
equipment. 

Triticale produced good yields, particularly Triwell and several breeders' 
lines, whereas Rosner and Welsh were somewhat lower yielding. 

• Wheat cultivars yielded less than triticale; Wakooma, Pitic, and Glenlea 
were the better yielding cultivars. 

Barley was of higher quality than the other cereals, containing more 
protein and less fiber. Johnston was the highest yielding barley cultivar, 

• Spring rye was lower yielding than barley; Petkus II, a line from Swift 
Current Research Station, outyielded other rye cultivars. 

Corn was low yielding because of insufficient heat units. 

• Faba bean and pea had the highest percentage of protein and should be used 
to increase the protein content of silage crops. Faba bean was better on 
Black soils and had the advantage of an upright growth habit, but pea was 
higher yielding on Gray Wooded soils. 

A multiple-cut system was used to estimate pasture yield, by cutting each 
time the regrowth reached 25-30 cm in height. Oat was the highest 
yielding crop as pasture on Gray Wooded soils; however on Black soils, 
spring-planted Italian ryegrass, winter wheat, and fall rye were more 
productive than oat. Spring cereals produced good yields early in the 
season, with growth declining in the fall, whereas spring-planted winter 
crops and ryegrass started slowly and produced high yields later in the 
season. 

Forage rape, fodder radish, and kale produced high yields if not grazed 
until late fall. 



RgSUMfi 

Le programme sur les annuelles fourrageres a commence en 1979 et a pris 
fin en 1983. Les travaux dans le sud de 1' Alberta sur les zones de sols bruns 
et brun fonce, irrigues et non irrigues, ont ete effectues a partir du Centre 
de recherches horticoles de 1 'Alberta, a Brooks. Les zones de sols noirs et 
forestiers gris ont ete etudiees a partir de la Station federale de recherches 
agricoles de Lacombe par le choix de six emplacements hors station. Les 
chercheurs ont evalue la productivity de divers cultivars et cultures a 
plusieurs emplacements et ont tire les conclusions suivantes: 

L'avoine est la plante a ensilage la plus productive. Foothill est le 
meilleur cultivar, en particulier sur sols forestiers gris, suivi par Fraser, 
Laurent, Sentinel et Grizzly. 

Le tournesol vient apres l'avoine pour la productivity, mais ne peut etre 
recommande a cause d'une extreme variabilite de rendement d f un endroit et 
d'une annee a 1 'autre, et des difficultes de recolte a la moissonneuse ou a la 
raraasseuse-presse. 

Le triticale donne de bons rendements, en particulier Triwell et plusieurs 
lignees d'obtenteur, alors que Rosner et Welsh s'averent moins productifs. 

Les cultivars de ble affichent un rendement moindre que le triticale; 
Wakooma , Pitic et Glenlea s'averent les meilleurs. 

L'orge est de meilleure qualite que les autres cereales, avec une teneur 
plus elevee en proteines, mais plus faible en cellulose. Johnston est le 
cultivar le plus productif. 

Le seigle de printemps est moins productif que l'orge; Petkus II, lignee 
de la Station de recherches de Swift Current, surpasse les autres cultivars de 
seigle. 

Le raa'is est de rendement modeste a cause de l'insuffisance d 'unites 
therraiques. 

La feverole et le pois affichent la plus forte teneur en proteines et 
devraient servir a relever la concentration proteique des cultures a 
ensilage. Le feverole donne de meilleurs resultats sur sols noirs et a 
l'avantage d 'avoir un port dresse, mais le pois est plus productif sur sols 
forestiers gris. 

Un regime multicoupe a servi a evaluer le rendement des paturages en 
coupant la repousse des qu'elle atteint 25 a 30 cm de hauteur. L'avoine est 
la plante a paturage la plus productive sur sols forestiers gris, mais sur 
sols noirs, le ray-grass d'ltalie seme au printemps, le ble d'hiver et le 
seigle d'automne surpassent l'avoine. Les cereales de printemps donnent de 
bons rendements tot dans la saison, mais elles regressent a l'automne, alors 
que les cultures d'hiver et le ray-grass seme au printemps demarrent 
lentement , mais donnent des rendements eleves plus tard en saison. 

Le colza, le radis et le chou fourragers donnent de bons rendements s'ils 
ne sont pas patures avant la fin de l'automne. 



INTRODUCTION 

There has not been a critical evaluation of the role of annual crops for 
forage in Alberta in spite of its position as the major beef-producing 
province in Canada. Researchers working with forage are primarily interested 
in perennial grasses and legumes. Interest in annual crops has been oriented 
primarily toward grain production. This emphasis has resulted in a lack of 
information on annual forage production, particularly beyond the area in 
southern Alberta, where corn is recommended. The increased intensity of 
cropping, brought on by higher land values, has prompted some producers, 
particularly dairy operators, to grow annuals. Beef producers must also 
compete with producers in areas with a mild climate, which allows year-round 
use of rangeland as pasture. Annual crop residues, both in- field and stored, 
have been and will probably continue to be a source of low-quality feed. 
Annual crops for forage offer several advantages of perennials, such as higher 
production, lower harvest and storage losses when ensiled, and a choice of 
forage or grain production. However, there are several disadvantages, 
including the following: a requirement for better storage facilities, higher 
labor requirements for tillage and harvest, and transportation difficulties, 
which limit silage to on-farm use. 

The annuals for forage program was designed to cover the Black and Gray 
Wooded soil-climatic zones. A primary aim was to establish the potential of 
various species for forage production and to evaluate cultivars from diverse 
sources. 

All annuals were seeded in small plots (1.2 x 6.0 m) and harvested to 
determine fresh weight; a subsample was oven-dried to determine dry weight 
yield as kilograms per hectare. The dried samples were used to determine 
protein content and acid detergent fiber, from which digestible energy content 
was estimated. 

From 1979 to 1983 this work was supported by a grant from the Farming for 
the Future program. 

Yields of annual crops as silage 

Several tests were begun in 1979 to evaluate the production of forage by 
annual crops. Single entries of 13 crops were tested for silage production at 
Lacombe and Bluff ton in 1979 and 1980 (Table 1). Results indicated that 
sorghum and soybeans not be tested further because of low yields, that forage 
rape be tested separately, and that corn be added to the standard test. 

The standard test crops for silage production were grown at six or seven 
locations in central Alberta for 5 years and included several cultivars of 
five cereals as well as corn, faba bean, pea, and sunflower. Table 2 shows 
the silage yields in kilograms of dry matter per hectare from all locations 
for each year. The variation from year to year can be seen, as well as 
deletions and additions of cultivars. The average species yield, which is 
calculated from all the cultivar-year yields, gives a good estimate of yields 
in central Alberta. 

The yields of crops in the standard tests over 5 years showed strong 
similarities based on soil type. The yields from the Black soil locations 
(Lacombe, Westlock, and Olds-Didsbury) were combined, as were those from the 
Gray Wooded soil locations (Bluff ton, Smoky Lake, and Chedderville- 
Leslieville). The only Solonetzic soil location was Vegreville. Table 3 



shows these yields as a percentage of Foothill oats for each soil type in 
addition to the actual yields from the three soil types. These data 
demonstrate the need for recommendations based on soil-climatic zones. 

LOCATIONS 

The yields of the standard tests at various locations are shown in Tables 
4-10. Averages are not listed for crops grown for only 1 year. The 1979 
growing season was dry at all locations, which resulted in low yields (Table 
2). Fertilizer was applied at all sites in 1979. Nitrogen was applied at 50 
kg/ha on Black soil sites and at 75 kg/ha on Gray Wooded soil sites as 
ammonium nitrate (34-0-0); 25 kg/ha of P2O5 (11-55-0) were also applied at 
all sites. 

The 1980 season was dry at seeding, but adequate rainfall throughout the 
rest of the growing season resulted in good yields at most locations. 
Fertilizer applications to the standard tests in 1980 were the same as in 
1979, except at Olds, where the cooperator applied anhydrous ammonia as the 
sole source of nitrogen. Beginning in 1981 soils from all sites were analyzed 
for plant nutrient content, and fertilizer was then added based on 
recommendations from the Alberta soil-testing laboratory. 

Lacombe 



All the test crops were grown at the Agriculture Canada Research Station, 
which was used as the primary test area. This site, with its fertile black 
neutral soil was considered to be representative of the Black soil zone. A 
dry year in 1979 and a severe hailstorm on 2 August 1980 were major 
yield-reducing factors. The forage yields are shown in Table 4. 

Westlock 



The Westlock site was about 13 km northwest of Westlock, on a Black soil 
that was slightly acidic, at pH 6.2. The yields here were somewhat lower than 
those from Lacombe as shown in Table 5. In 1983 more than the recommended 
amount of fertilizer was applied in error. 

Olds-Didsbury 

The Olds site was on Black soil, about 24 km west of Olds, and was used as 
a test location in 1979 and 1980. In 1980 the cooperator applied ammonia, and 
no additional nitrogen was added. From 1981 to 1983 the plots were grown on a 
similar Black soil with a pH of 6.0, located about 32 km west of Didsbury 
(Table 6). In 1983 a light frost on 20 July slightly injured the leaves of 
the corn but did not appear to reduce yields. 

Bluffton 

This site, about 10 km north of Bluffton, was considered to be 
representative of the Gray Wooded soil zone (Table 7). The soil was slightly 
acidic, with a pH about 6.0, and was low in both potassium and sulfur. 
Because of its proximity to Lacombe, this site was used for most variety 
trials on Gray Wooded soils. 



Chedderville-Leslieville 

Chedderville, a Gray Wooded soil site about 19 km south of Rocky Mountain 
House, was used as a test site in 1979, 1980, and 1981. This soil was 
distinctly acidic, with a pH of 5.3. The plots in 1981 were grown on an area 
summerfallowed in 1980, which resulted in unusually high yields, as shown in 
Table 8. In 1982 and 1983 the plots were grown at Leslieville, which is about 
19 km east of Rocky Mountain House, on a soil type that was similar but less 
acidic, with pH at about 6.5. In 1982 hail damaged the plots in mid August, 
severely reducing potential yields. 

Smoky Lake 

This site was about 10 km east of Smoky Lake on Gray Wooded soil with a pH 
of 7.5. In 1983 the plots were moved north to a similar soil type with a pH 
of 6.5, but a dry spring reduced yields, as shown in Table 9. 

Vegreville 

The Agriculture Canada substation at Vegreville was used for plots from 
1981 to 1983. This site was selected as representative of Solonetzic soils. 
This soil is high in sodium, particularly below the top 15 cm. Total soluble 
salt and sulfate concentrations increase with soil depth to greater than 1000 
ppm, or 7.4 mmho conductivity at the 30-60 cm depth. These salt 
concentrations can reduce crop growth, as shown in Table 10. 

QUALITY 

Analysis of annual forages for protein showed considerable year-to-year 
variation as well as differences between sites (Table 11). As expected, faba 
bean and pea contained the highest percentage of protein. Of the cereals, 
barley was the highest, followed by wheat, triticale, oat, and rye, 
respectively. Sunflower averaged slightly higher than barley, and corn was 
slightly higher than oat. Percentage of protein was combined with dry-matter 
yield to estimate actual yield of protein for each crop averaged over 4 years 
(Table 12). Faba bean and pea produced the most protein, followed by 
sunflower and oat. 

Analysis for fiber allowed digestible energy to be estimated. Dry-matter 
yields combined with digestible energy per kilogram of dry matter gave an 
estimate of yields of digestible energy per hectare for each species (Table 
13). Averaged over 4 years, oat produced the highest quantity of digestible 
energy followed by sunflower, triticale, wheat, and barley. Faba bean and pea 
had the lowest yields of digestible energy. 

PASTURE 

Multiple cuts to simulate grazing were made on plots at Lacombe and 
Bluff ton from 1979 to 1983 . The crops were cut back to 5 cm each time they 
reached a height of 25-30 cm. At Lacombe, Italian ryegrass consistently gave 
the highest pasture yields except in the dry season of 1979. Winter cereals 
produced good pasture yields at Lacombe, whereas oat was consistently the best 
pasture at Bluff ton (Table 14) . Triwell replaced Welsh triticale in 1982 
because of its higher yield in variety tests, and Halton winter barley was 
added in 1982. At Lacombe, Halton produced 80% more pasture than Bonanza in 
the 2 years they were tested together, whereas at Bluff ton, their yields were 



similar. The crops could easily be divided into early and late season 
producers. Spring cereals showed more rapid growth in the spring and were 
ready for pasturing earlier. Italian ryegrass and winter-type cereals grew 
most rapidly in midsummer and continued to produce well into the fall when 
moisture was adequate. 

COLTIVAR TRIALS 

Oat 

Oat cultivar trials were carried out at Lacombe from 1979 to 1983 and 
included Foothill, licensed in 1978 as a forage oat, for comparing yields. 
Silage yields of common cultivars are shown in Table 15. Less known, foreign 
and breeders' lines of oat are shown in Table 16. The 1980 cultivar trials at 
Lacombe were damaged by hail, which reduced yields. 

At Bluff ton, yields were somewhat lower than at Lacombe. Cultivars and 
lines are shown in Table 17 for 1981-1983. 

Currently recommended cultivars for silage in the parklands, in descending 
order of yield, are as follows: Foothill, Laurent, Frazer, Grizzly, Harmon, 
and Cascade. 

Barley 

Barley is the most commonly used silage crop in the parkland region. This 
is a result of several factors, including familiarity to producers, choice of 
seed or silage crop, and availability of seed. Earliness does not interfere 
with other operations and produces feed that has a higher protein content than 
do other cereal crops (Table 11). For comparison, Bonanza was selected as a 
check. Table 18 shows the yields of variety trials carried out at Lacombe. 
When first tested in 1980, Johnston did not produce the highest yield, but it 
did rise to first place at both Lacombe and Bluffton for the following 3 
years. Yields of barley at Bluffton, as shown in Table 19, are considerably 
below those at Lacombe. The currently recommended barley cultivars for silage 
are Johnston, Empress, and Klages in central and northern Alberta; and 
Johnston, Gait, Klondike, Elrose, and Hector in south and east-central Alberta, 

Wheat , rye , and triticale 

Wheat, rye, and triticale cultivars were compared in a single test each 
year from 1980 to 1982 at Lacombe (Table 20) and in 1981 and 1982 at Bluffton 
(Table 21). In 1983 triticale was tested separately from wheat at both 
locations. 

Cultivars of spring rye were limited to Prolific and Gazelle, with Gazelle 
producing higher silage yields. Three lines selected from Petkus at Swift 
Current were tested in 1980 (Table 20). One line, Petkus II, was the highest 
yielding and with Gazelle was added to the standard test. The testing of 
wheat, rye, and triticale cultivars took place in 1981 and 1982 at Lacombe and 
Bluffton (Tables 20 and 21). Rye produced yields similar to wheat and 
somewhat lower than triticale. 

The wheat cultivars Glenlea and Pitic were used in the standard test as 
checks. When compared with other utility wheats and with hard red spring and 
durum wheats, they showed similar yields at Lacombe in 1980. It is common 
practice to salvage grain crops of wheat or rye damaged by drought, hail, or 
frost for forage, although these crops are not purposely seeded for that use. 



The triticale cultivars Rosner and Welsh were used in the standard test 
beginning in 1979, until the better yielding Triwell was added in 1981. In 
1981 and 1982 Triwell was the highest producing cultivar at Bluff ton (Table 
21) and in 1982 at Lacombe (Table 20). The cultivars Triwell and Carman are 
recommended for silage production in the parkland region. 

Sunflower 

Sundak sunflower in the standard test produced highly variable forage 
yields in various years and locations (Tables 2-10). A similar variability 
was found in the cultivar test at Lacombe over the years 1979-1983 (Table 
22). Kenya White, introduced and supplied by Morden Research Station, 
produced the highest total yield . The cultivar is very tall (3 m) and 
difficult to harvest, as would be most other cultivars whose stem base has a 
diameter of up to 60 mm. The low yields in 1980 were partly due to hail 
damage. Although sunflowers have a potential for high silage yield, 
year-to-year variability and potential harvest problems restrict their use as 
a silage crop. 

Faba bean 

Faba bean cultivars and lines were evaluated at Lacombe from 1980 to 1983 
(Table 23). The cultivars Herz Freya, Aladin, and Outlook were good forage 
producers, Diana was somewhat lower, and Ackerperle was the lowest producer. 
Orion and Lacombe No. 3 were selected for seed yield and earliness, and do not 
yield as well for forage. The faba bean test was grown at Bluff ton in 1981, 
1982, and 1983 as well as at Vegreville in 1982 and 1983; yields are shown in 
Table 24. Faba bean outyielded peas on Black soils, but on Gray Wooded and 
Solonetzic soils, pea usually produced more than did faba bean. Faba bean has 
the advantage of an upright growth habit and a slightly higher protein 
content, 17-20%, when compared with peas at 16-17%. 

Pea 

Pea cultivars were evaluated for silage yield for the years 1980-1983 
(Table 25). Generally, the cultivars Tara, Century, and Lenca yielded better 
than did Trapper and Triumph. Pea should be used as a source of high protein 
in mixtures or should be combined with low-protein silage crops in the Gray 
Wooded soil areas, where it produces very well. 

Corn 

Cultivars of corn were evaluated at Lacombe over 3 years for silage yield 
(Table 26). In 1981 the yields were very good, and in 1983 they were very 
low. This variation was also found with corn in the standard test between 
years and locations. In 1982 North American and European hybrids were 
compared, but neither group had a yield advantage. Corn cannot be recommended 
in short-season areas because of its variable yields and the requirement for 
specialized harvesting equipment. 

Proso and Foxtail millet 

Ten lines of Proso millet and eight lines of Foxtail millet from Morden, 
Man., were evaluated for silage yield at Lacombe in 1981 and 1982 (Table 27). 
Good silage yields were found in 1981 for some of the lines, but they did not 



mature to produce seed. The earliest line, NC22-3, does occasionally produce 
mature seed, but both types are extremely frost sensitive and are not adapted 
to the parkland area's short season. 

Italian ryegrass 

Four cultivars of Italian ryegrass were evaluated at Lacombe for their 
silage (two cuts), hay (three cuts), and pasture (four or five cuts) 
production from 1981 to 1983 (Table 28). They mature earlier than cereals, 
and when cut as silage at the soft-dough stage, sufficient regrowth occurred 
to warrant a second cut. The hay cuts were made shortly after heading and 
resulted in three cuts. As simulated pasture, the plots were cut each time 
the growth reached 30 cm, which resulted in four or five cuts. The highest 
yields were found as silage, with the exception of Lemtal in 1981 and Lemtal , 
Maris Ledger, and Merwester in 1982. In general, Promenade was the best 
silage cultivar, Merwester the best for hay, and Maris Ledger the best for 
pasture. All cultivars under the three types of harvest produced lower yields 
in 1983 because of a dry spring and fall. Ryegrasses are perennials in areas 
with mild climates, but in Alberta they must be considered annuals, as they do 
not survive the winter. 

Winter cereal pastures 

The pasture yields of spring-planted cultivars of winter wheat, triticale, 
and fall rye were evaluated at Lacombe in 1983 (Table 29). The total pasture 
yield of Norstar winter wheat was the lowest, an unexpected occurrence because 
it has regularly outyielded fall rye in pasture production in previous years . 
Sundance, followed by Kodiak, produced the highest first-cut yields, whereas 
Winalta produced more in the second and third cuts. Norstar produced the 
second lowest yield in the first cut and the lowest yield in the third cut. 
The spring and fall of 1983 were very dry, and Norstar may require better 
conditions to reach its potential productivity. 

Brassica species 

Several species of brassica crops were compared with canola for forage 
yield under a two-cut system (pasture) and a single-cut system (silage) late 
in the season, on 1 October (Table 30). Several crops produced good yields 
under the single-cut system, but none produced satisfactory regrowth when cut 
on 29 July. Appin grazing turnip produces fleshy roots, and cut 2 includes 
root weight. Very high yields were recorded for most of these cultivars in 
1983 (Table 31). Altex, Tobin, Apoll, and Neris changed from vegetative 
growth to flowering and were cut on 29 July in the silage test. The others 
did not flower and continued to grow until cut on 14 September, at which time 
any regrowth from those cut 29 July was also harvested. 

For pasture the first cut was taken on 4 July. Two more cuts were taken 
from the cultivars that showed sufficient regrowth, one on 26 July and the 
last on 16 September. The remaining cultivars regrew very slowly after the 
first cut, and a second cut was not taken until 16 September. 

The brassica crops were regularly damaged in the spring by flea beetles, 
and occasionally this attack was severe enough to require the use of 
insecticide sprays. Cabbageworms were found on brassica in the fall but not 
in sufficient numbers to warrant control measures. 



Frost-tolerant brassica crops are useful only as late fall pasture since 
they continue to produce very late in the fall if they are not harvested 
earlier. Their use as silage is not practical because of the late harvest of 
material with very high moisture content. 



Table 1. Silage yield of species at Lacombe and Bluff ton for 1979 and 1980, 
in kilograms per hectare of dry matter 







Lacombe 






Bluffton 






1979 


1980 


1979 


1980 


Foothill oat 


11 


962 


10 


329 


4 


955 


10 


118 


Bonanza barley 


7 


657 


10 


061 


3 


111 


3 


543 


Welsh triticale 


10 


123 


13 


383 


3 


456 


6 


309 


Glenlea wheat 


10 


128 


12 


041 


2 


511 


7 


209 


Diana faba bean 


5 


956 


6 


995 


1 


602 


4 


873 


Tara pea 


6 


933 


5 


463 


2 


269 


1 


705 


G4077 corn 


5 


770 


9 


896 


1 


029 


4 


274 


Pioneer 931 sorghum 


5 


004 


6 


172 




249 




167 


Sundak sunflower 


11 


299 


5 


468 


2 


275 


4 


121 


Maple Arrow soybean 


2 


602 


1 


232 




521 




91 


NC22-3 Proso millet 


6 


433 


6 


203 




494 




317 


Gazelle spring rye 


3 


059 


12 


336 




703 


6 


480 


Dwarf Essex rape 






16 


971 






11 


402 



Table 2. Silage yield of annual forage crops in Central Alberta, in kilograms 
per hectare, at six locations in 1979 and 1980 and seven locations in 1981-1983 



Crop 



1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 



Yearly Average 
average species yield 



Barley 

Betzes 

Klondike 

Bonanza 

Fairfield 

Johnston 

Halton 



5164 
5371 
5226 
5446 



6537 
6240 
6928 
6775 



6108 
6688 
6511 



5250 
5640 
6871 



6176 
6050 
6646 
6448 



5851 
5906 
6054 
6085 
6758 
6448 



(barley 
6184) 



Wheat 
Glenlea 
Pitic 
Neepawa 



6041 
5960 



7335 
7676 



6845 
7073 



5457 
5759 
5703 



6313 
5988 



6398 
6491 
5703 



(wheat 
6197) 



Rye 

Petkus II 
Gazelle 
Prolific 



7149 6011 7226 



4793 
3217 



7245 
6667 



6795 
6019 
4942 



(rye 
5919) 



Triticale 

Triwell 

598 

Rosner 

Welsh 



5234 
5462 



7004 
6995 



7821 

6995 
6305 



6922 
6589 
6167 



7062 



7268 
6589 
6350 
6254 



(triticale 
6615) 



Oat 

Foothill 

Fraser 

Grizzly 

Harmon 

Laurent 

Cascade 

Sentinel 

OA330-60 



7978 
7502 
7367 



9715 
9618 
8926 



7996 
7627 
7384 
7710 
8553 



7899 
7625 
7669 
7588 
7729 
7519 



8234 
8478 
7890 

7893 

8791 
8383 



8364 
8170 
7847 
7649 
8058 
7519 
8791 
8383 



(oat 
8098) 



Other 
Corn 

Faba bean 
Pea 
Sunflower 



3865 4413 
4333 4393 
6147 3547 



5875 
5283 
5184 
9837 



5076 
5613 
5930 
7120 



5659 
5709 
5812 
9570 



5537 
4977 
5130 
7244 



5537 
4977 
5130 
7244 



10 



Table 3. Silage yield of annual forage crops and as a percentage of Foothill oat on 
three soil types 



Crop 



Black soils 
15 stn. -years 
(kg/ha) (%) 



Grey Wooded soils 

15 stn. -years 
(kg/ha) (%) 



Solonetzic soil 

3 stn. -years 
(kg/ha) (%) 



Barley 

Betzes 

Klondike 

Bonanza 

Fairfield 

Johnston 

Halton 



6 994 

7 455 
7 696 

7 472 

8 628 
7 995 



72 

77 
80 
77 
89 
83 



707 
662 
960 
241 
554 
410 



63 
62 
66 
70 
74 
72 



3 406 


58 


4 485 


77 


5 073 


87 


5 851 


100 


5 019 


86 


4 622 


79 


5 306 


91 


6 586 


113 



Wheat 
Glenlea 
Pitic 
Neepawa 



8 068 
7 835 
6 844 



83 
81 
71 



5 132 
5 400 
4 199 



69 
72 
56 



Rye 

Petkus II 
Gazelle 
Prolific 



8 321 
7 345 

5 849 



86 
76 
60 



5 608 
4 693 
4 034 



75 
63 
54 



5 607 



96 



Triticale 

Triwell 

598 

Rosner 

Welsh 



9 169 
8 118 
7 653 
7 500 



95 
84 
79 
78 



6 170 

4 423 

5 179 
5 383 



83 
59 
69 
72 



5 054 
9 347 
5 481 
2 983 



86 

160 

94 

51 



Oat 

Foothill 

Fraser 

Grizzly 

Harmon 

Laurent 

Cascade 

Sentinel 

OA330-60 



669 
835 
236 
123 
681 
814 



11 279 
11 806 



100 
102 
96 
94 
100 
101 
117 
122 



466 
084 
000 
819 
098 
730 
701 
560 



100 
95 
94 
91 
95 
77 
103 
101 



842 
451 
302 
893 
131 
476 
834 
668 



100 
110 

91 
101 
105 
111 
117 

80 



Other 
Corn 

Faba bean 
Pea 
Sunflower 



8 032 
6 187 
5 494 
8 819 



83 
64 
57 
91 



5 013 
4 399 
4 904 

6 444 



67 
59 
66 
86 



3 658 
2 992 

4 630 
8 111 



63 

51 

79 

139 



11 



Table 4. Silage yields of annual forage crops at Lacombe, in kilograms per hectare 



Crop 



1979 



1980 



1981 



1982 



1983 



Average 



Barley 

Betzes 

Klondike 

Bonanza 

Fairfield 

Johnston 

Halton 



6 480 


8 426 








7 453 


8 236 


10 420 


10 192 






9 616 


7 603 


10 681 


10 316 


8 900 


9 676 


9 435 


7 376 


7 314 


9 990 


8 213 


8 755 


8 329 








11 212 


8 120 
10 856 


9 666 


9 397 


11 537 


10 908 


8 397 


10 739 


10 195 


9 212 


11 618 


10 629 


6 220 
8 190 


8 720 


9 279 



Wheat 

Glenlea 

Pitic 

Neepawa 



Rye 

Petkus II 
Gazelle 
Prolific 



4 995 
1 711 



11 299 
9 904 



12 100 



7 529 



11 284 



10 304 
8 147 
5 807 



Triticale 

Triwell 

598 

Rosner 

Welsh 



7 860 

8 180 



9 868 
10 510 



12 015 

11 646 
9 886 



10 787 

10 188 

9 472 



11 032 



11 278 

9 711 
9 525 



Oat 

Foothill 

Fraser 

Grizzly 

Harmon 

Laurent 

Cascade 

Sentinel 

OA330-60 



9 910 
10 036 
10 358 



12 183 

11 883 

9 141 



11 389 

13 013 

12 413 
12 112 

14 419 



11 808 
11 634 
11 802 
11 408 

10 430 

11 718 



11 532 

12 634 
10 952 

10 508 

12 689 
14 909 



11 364 
11 840 

10 933 

11 760 
11 785 



Other 
Corn 

Faba bean 
Pea 
Sunflower 



5 616 
3 937 
9 270 



5 520 
4 098 
4 513 



13 343 
9 644 
6 830 

13 562 



8 267 

9 140 
6 992 

13 223 



10 226 
9 220 
4 341 

15 629 



10 612 
7 828 
5 239 

11 239 



12 



Table 5. Silage yields of annual forage crops at Westlock, in kilograms per hectare 



Crop 



1979 



1980 



1981 



1982 



1983 



Average 



Barley 

Betzes 

Klondike 

Bonanza 

Fairfield 

Johnston 

Halton 



6 747 


5 996 








6 371 


6 597 


5 137 


5 317 






5 683 


6 312 


5 540 


5 903 


4 837 


6 636 


5 845 


6 707 


5 688 


6 233 


6 465 


6 526 


6 323 








6 253 


6 852 
4 467 


6 552 


7 496 


4 394 


4 688 


4 394 


6 956 


5 585 


7 966 


4 935 


5 394 


5 492 
4 864 


4 722 


5 901 



Wheat 
Glenlea 
Pitic 
Neepawa 



Rye 

Petkus II 
Gazelle 
Prolific 



7 965 
6 349 



5 170 

5 237 



5 185 



4 985 



5 768 



5 312 

6 567 
5 793 



Triticale 

Triwell 

598 

Rosner 

Welsh 



6 898 

7 613 



4 965 
4 792 



6 572 

4 457 
4 221 



7 460 
7 945 
5 770 



6 081 



6 704 

5 522 
5 542 



Oat 

Foothill 

Fraser 

Grizzly 

Harmon 

Laurent 

Cascade 

Sentinel 

OA330-60 



9 773 
9 041 
8 776 



6 378 
6 657 
6 413 



6 767 
5 743 

5 014 

6 592 
6 654 



971 
125 
520 
923 
333 
788 



6 824 

8 002 

7 132 

6 188 

9 064 
10 140 



7 542 
7 313 
6 971 
6 757 
6 725 



Other 
Corn 

Faba bean 
Pea 
Sunflower 



6 553 

5 913 

6 565 



4 059 
4 402 
3 316 



5 190 

3 690 

5 784 

10 249 



7 755 

5 764 

6 638 
9 191 



11 137 
5 746 
5 780 

11 088 



8 027 
5 162 
5 703 

8 081 



13 



Table 6. Silage yields of annual forage crops at Olds in 1979-1980 and Didsbury 
1981-1983, in kilograms per hectare 



Crop 



1979 



1980 



1981 



1982 



1983 



Average 



Barley 

Betzes 

Klondike 

Bonanza 

Fairfield 

Johnston 

Halton 



4 802 


9 512 








7 157 


5 083 


7 803 


8 309 






7 065 


5 016 


9 219 


9 239 


6 070 


8 514 


7 809 


5 691 


9 985 


8 010 


6 644 


8 493 


7 764 








8 876 


10 457 
8 663 


9 666 


6 676 


8 370 


10 104 


6 815 


10 157 


8 424 


6 038 


8 468 


10 047 


7 303 
7 477 


9 725 


8 316 



Wheat 
Glenlea 
Pitic 
Neepawa 



Rye 

Petkus II 
Gazelle 
Prolific 



5 549 
3 735 



9 092 
8 158 



10 172 



7 434 



10 435 



9 347 
7 320 
5 946 



Triticale 

Triwell 

598 

Rosner 

Welsh 



5 305 
5 636 



8 803 
8 128 



10 288 

10 308 
8 539 



7 098 
6 220 

6 485 



11 188 



9 524 

7 725 
7 434 



Oat 

Foothill 

Fraser 

Grizzly 

Harmon 

Laurent 

Cascade 

Sentinel 

OA330-60 



8 738 
8 454 
7 624 



13 457 
12 389 
11 538 



8 065 

8 468 

9 247 
8 629 

10 376 



8 401 

9 913 
10 142 

9 073 
10 614 
10 935 



11 845 

11 394 
10 469 

10 620 

12 083 
10 369 



10 101 

10 123 

9 804 

8 851 

10 533 



Other 
Corn 

Faba bean 
Pea 
Sunflower 



3 110 
5 185 
8 551 



4 320 
4 683 
3 981 



6 042 

6 763 

4 334 

10 051 



3 498 
6 611 

4 388 
4 783 



6 828 

7 054 
9 115 

8 323 



5 456 

5 571 
5 541 
7 137 



3 670 


3 741 








3 705 


3 395 


3 068 


3 433 






3 298 


3 358 


4 393 


4 792 


4 837 


6 636 


4 803 


3 617 


5 169 


4 618 


6 465 


6 526 


5 279 








6 253 


6 852 
4 467 


6 552 


2 690 


6 545 


7 124 


4 394 


6 956 


5 541 


3 500 


6 795 


5 882 


5 492 
4 864 


5 722 


5 658 



14 



Table 7. Silage yields of annual forage crops at Bluff ton, in kilograms per hectare 



Crop 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 Average 

Barley 

Betzes 

Klondike 

Bonanza 

Fairfield 

Johnston 

Halton 

Wheat 
Glenlea 
Pitic 
Neepawa 

Rye 

Petkus II 7 222 4 985 5 768 5 991 

Gazelle 1 703 6 301 4 002 

Prolific 601 5 719 3 160 

Triticale 

Triwell 6 872 7 460 6 081 6 804 

598 7 945 

Rosner 2 777 6 941 6 745 5 770 5 558 

Welsh 3 113 6 339 6 296 5 249 

Oat 

Foothill 5 659 8 020 8 542 7 971 6 824 7 413 

Fraser 4 480 8 751 6 507 7 125 8 002 6 973 

Grizzly 4 173 9 716 6 915 7 520 7 132 7 091 

Harmon 7 715 6 923 7 319 

Laurent 7 172 7 333 6 188 6 760 

Cascade 6 788 

Sentinel 9 064 

OA330-60 10 140 

Other 

Corn 3 808 7 755 11 137 7 566 

Faba bean 1 362 4 549 4 737 5 764 5 746 4 431 

Pea 3 334 2 739 4 215 6 638 5 780 4 541 

Sunflower 1 915 4 378 7 682 9 191 11 088 6 850 



15 



3 814 


4 702 








4 258 


3 521 


4 266 


8 251 






5 346 


3 443 


4 516 


9 016 


2 567 


5 930 


5 094 


3 737 


5 373 


7 837 


2 791 


7 219 


5 391 








3 545 


8 395 
8 481 


5 970 


3 151 


6 033 


7 469 


1 761 


4 897 


4 662 


2 965 


5 923 


8 992 


3 059 
3 047 


5 207 


5 229 



Table 8. Silage yields of annual forage crops at Chedderville in 1979-1981 and 
Leslieville in 1982-1983, in kilograms per hectare 



Crop 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 Average 

Barley 

Betzes 

Klondike 

Bonanza 

Fairfield 

Johnston 

Halton 

Wheat 
Glenlea 
Pitic 
Neepawa 

Rye 

Petkus II 6 789 3 698 7 268 5 918 

Gazelle 2 386 3 881 3 133 

Prolific 899 3 431 2 165 

Triticale 

Triwell 9 071 3 895 6 564 6 510 

598 2 191 

Rosner 1 710 4 732 7 239 2 792 4 118 

Welsh 1 407 5 622 6 968 4 665 

Oat 

Foothill 5 297 9 132 9 749 5 121 9 990 7 857 

Fraser 5 276 8 751 9 652 4 087 9 840 7 521 

Grizzly 5 179 8 491 9 009 4 877 9 701 7 451 

Harmon 8 499 5 215 6 857 

Laurent 9 818 5 477 10 925 8 740 

Cascade 5 038 

Sentinel 9 761 

OA330-60 9 054 

Other 

Corn 3 556 3 103 4 800 3 819 

Faba bean 2 153 2 817 5 766 3 272 6 190 4 039 

Pea 3 217 5 947 5 671 4 571 6 984 5 278 

Sunflower 4 266 2 511 8 737 2 567 8 305 5 277 



16 



Table 9. 
hectare 



Silage yields of annual forage crops at Smoky Lake, in kilograms per 



Crop 



1979 



1980 



1981 



1982 



1983 



Average 



Barley 

Betzes 

Klondike 

Bonanza 

Fairfield 

Johnston 

Halton 



5 474 


6 845 








5 394 


6 748 


3 884 






5 623 


7 221 


4 474 


3 141 


4 456 


5 557 


7 118 


5 222 


3 416 
3 426 


3 951 

4 857 
3 281 


6 835 


7 131 


4 968 


3 902 


3 133 


6 078 


7 419 


5 508 


4 366 
4 685 


3 202 



6 159 
5 342 

4 983 

5 052 
4 141 



Wheat 
Glenlea 
Pitic 
Neepawa 



5 193 
5 314 



Petkus II 

Gazelle 

Prolific 



6 162 
6 005 



7 727 
7 552 



5 341 



4 509 



4 752 



4 867 
6 944 
6 778 



Triticale 

Triwell 

598 

Rosner 

Welsh 



6 855 
6 885 



6 711 
6 577 



7 376 

5 493 
5 245 



4 085 

3 132 

4 395 



4 124 



5 195 

5 863 

6 235 



Oat 

Foothill 

Fraser 

Grizzly 

Harmon 

Laurent 

Cascade 

Sentinel 

OA330-60 



8 494 

7 799 

8 092 



9 072 
9 274 
8 259 



863 
562 
779 
113 
550 
264 



5 828 
5 696 
5 284 
5 449 
5 409 



4 383 
4 465 
4 880 

4 421 

4 278 
3 485 



128 

759 
458 
281 
793 



Other 
Corn 

Faba bean 
Pea 
Sunflower 



4 397 
4 415 
6 317 



5 214 
4 492 
2 583 



6 423 

4 448 

5 590 
11 453 



3 431 
5 182 

7 238 

8 327 



1 111 
4 400 

2 731 
7 340 



3 655 

4 728 
4 893 
7 204 



3077 


6110 


4268 


4485 


3666 


7618 


3937 


5073 




7714 


3988 
5019 


5851 


2654 


6786 


4428 


4622 


3059 


7874 


4986 


5306 


6586 









17 



Table 10. Silage yield of annual forage crops at Vegreville, in 
kilograms per hectare 



Crop 1981 1982 1983 Average 



Barley 

Klondike 

Bonanza 

Fairfield 

Johnston 

Halton 

Wheat 
Glenlea 
Pitic 
Neepawa 

Rye 

Petkus II 3234 7399 6190 5607 

Triticale 

Triwell 

598 

Rosner 

Welsh 

Oat 

Foothill 

Fraser 

Grizzly 

Harmon 

Laurent 

Cascade 

Sentinel 

OA330-60 

Other 
Corn 

Faba bean 
Pea 
Sunflower 



2556 


7563 
9347 


5044 


5054 


3079 


7883 




5481 


2983 








3594 


8043 


5891 


5842 


3443 


8275 


7637 


6451 


3314 


7432 


5161 


5302 


3308 


8478 




5893 


3891 


7960 
6476 


6544 

6834 
4668 


6131 


2762 


5985 


2227 


3658 


1931 


4182 


2865 


2992 


3867 


6384 


3639 


4630 


7129 


8901 


8305 


8111 



18 



Table 11. Average percentage of protein of annual forages, 1980-1983 















Average 


Crop 


1980 


1981 


1982 


1983 


Average 


species yield 


Oats 














Foothill 


6.3 


9.1 


7.3 


7.9 


7.6 


(oat 8.0) 


Fraser 


6.9 


8.7 


7.7 


8.0 


7.8 




Grizzly 


7.1 


9.3 


7.6 


8.3 


8.1 




Laurent 




8.6 


7.6 


8.3 


8.2 




Harmon 




8.5 


7.6 




8.0 




Cascade 






7.5 




7.5 




Sentinel 








8.6 


8.6 




OA330-60 








7.9 


7.9 




Barley 














Klondike 


9.5 


10.1 






9.8 


(barley 9.3) 


Bonanza 


9.3 


9.7 


9.9 


9.8 


9.7 




Betzes 


8.7 








8.7 




Fairfield 


9.0 


10.1 


9.8 


9.8 


9.7 




Johnston 






8.4 


9.5 


8.9 




Halton 








9.0 


9.0 




Wheat 














Glenlea 


8.0 


9.5 


8.8 


9.1 


8.8 


(wheat 8.9) 


Pitic 


8.3 


9.1 


8.9 


9.2 


8.9 




Neepawa 






9.1 




9.1 




Rye 














Gazelle 


7.3 








7.3 


(rye 7.5) 


Prolific 


7.5 








7.5 




Petkus II 




7.7 


7.8 


7.9 


7.8 




Triticale 














Welsh 


8.5 


9.2 






8.8 


(triticale 


Rosner 


7.5 


8.7 






8.1 


8.4) 


598 




7.8 






7.8 




Triwell 




9.4 


8.1 


8.8 


8.8 




Other 














Diana faba bean 


18.7 


18.7 


17.9 


16.1 


17.8 




Tara pea 


16.5 


17.0 


16.6 


16.4 


16.6 




Sundak sunflower 


11.6 


9.9 


8.9 


9.7 


10.0 




Corn 




9.3 


8.0 


7.5 


8.3 





19 



Table 12. Average protein yield of forage species over 4 years, 
in kilograms per hectare, at six locations in 1980 and seven 
locations in 1981-1983 



Average of 27 
Crop 1980 1981 1982 1983 location-years 



637(3)* 681(5) 595(6) 686(6) 650 

617(3) 575(3) 599(4) 599 

621(2) 516(3) 576(2) 581 

628(3) 526(3) 627(1) 585 

542(1) 483(1) 590(1) 532 

948(1) 557(1) 873(1) 697 

915(1) 1084(1) 927(1) 938 

860(1) 945(1) 953(1) 871 

480(1) 416(1) 411(1) 436 

* Figure in parentheses indicates number of cultivars. 



Oat 


637(3) 


Barley 


604(4) 


Wheat 


612(2) 


Triticale 


560(2) 


Rye 


514(2) 


Sunflower 


411(1) 


Faba bean 


825(1) 


Pea 


725(1) 


Corn 


— — 



20 



Table 13. Estimated average digestible energy yield of forage specie; 
over 4 years, in MCal/ha x 10"^, in six locations in 1980 and seven 
lnfat-.inns in 1Q81-1Q83 



locations in 198I-I983 



Average of 27 
Crop 1980 1981 1982 1983 location-years 



24.2(3)* 19.5(5) 19.9(6) 21.9(6) 21.4 

16.7(3) 17.5(3) 19.2(4) 18. 1 

17.4(2) 15.6(3) 18.3(2) 18.2 

17.3(3) 18.0(3) 21.2(1) 18.8 

16.5(1) 15.2(1) 19.4(1) 17.0 

23.3(1) 18.3(1) 26.0(1) 19.3 

12.7(1) 16.4(1) 16.0(1) 14.2 

13.2(1) 17.0(1) 17.5(1) 14.8 

16.5(1) 14.3(1) 17.2(1) 16.0 

* Figure in parentheses indicates number of cultivars. 



Oat 


24.2(3) 


Barley 


19.0(4) 


Wheat 


21.5(2) 


Triticale 


18.8(2) 


Rye 


16.8(2) 


Sunflowers 


9.6(1) 


Faba bean 


11.6(1) 


Pea 


11.6(1) 


Corn 


— — 



21 



Table 14. Pasture yields at Lacombe and Bluffton, 1979-1983, in kilograms 
per hectare of dry matter 















Yearly 


Crop 


1979 


1980 


1981 


1982 


1983 


average 






Lacombe 








Foothill oat 


3885 


3724 


3189 


2892 


3046 


3347 


Bonanza barley 


2884 


2464 


1921 


1830 


1852 


2190 


Welsh triticale 


1572 


1840 


1679 






1697 


Triwell triticale 








1789 


2171 


1980 


Glenlea wheat 


2033 


2852 


1931 


1132 


2105 


2011 


Norstar winter wheat 


4720 


6424 


4701 


3478 


3189 


4502 


Kodiak fall rye 


2532 


5430 


4242 


5018 


3786 


4202 


Gazelle spring rye 


947 


2941 








1944 


Proso millet 


5533 


539 








3036 


Italian ryegrass 


1865 


7566 


5935 


5153 


4551 


5014 


Halton winter barley 








3291 


3437 


3364 






Bluffton 








Foothill oat 


1982 


2375 


2701 


1458 


2013 


2106 


Bonanza barley 


1128 


1353 


1508 


1130 


1706 


1365 


Welsh triticale 


1180 


1577 


1366 






1374 


Triwell triticale 








1238 


1085 


1162 


Glenlea wheat 


1297 


2104 


1145 


839 


1049 


1278 


Norstar winter wheat 


1032 


495 


1616 


789 


1865 


1159 


Kodiak fall rye 


1371 


720 


1967 


709 


1903 


1334 


Gazelle spring rye 


1016 


2064 








1540 


Proso millet 


1209 










1209 


Italian ryegrass 


783 


1600 


1898 


1201 


1534 


1403 


Halton winter barley 








1099 


1721 


1410 



22 



Table 15. Silage yield of oat cultivars at Lacombe over 5 
years, in kilograms per hectare 



Cultivar 


1979 


1980 


1981 


1982 


1983 


Laurent 


11 


117 


10 


252 


12 


765 


13 


641 


9 569 


Harmon 


11 


028 


8 


946 


11 


473 


11 


384 


9 979 


Foothill 


10 


872 


11 


039 


10 


776 


11 


828 


9 475 


Hudson 


10 


710 


9 


656 


11 


043 


12 


893 


9 167 


Grizzly 


10 


453 


8 


891 


11 


471 


12 


124 




Victory 


10 


447 


9 


706 


9 


972 








Scott 


10 


355 


9 


948 


12 


226 


12 


710 


9 106 


Gemini 


10 


230 


8 


991 


10 


579 








Eagle 


10 


101 


9 


052 


6 


550 








Larain 


10 


079 


7 


608 


10 


855 








Kelsey 


9 


929 


9 


517 












Rodney 


9 


922 


7 


521 












Fraser 


9 


807 


9 


083 


12 


542 


12 


627 




Cascade 


9 


783 


8 


575 


12 


645 


12 


889 


8 272 


Athabasca 


9 


656 


9 


205 


10 


432 








Garry 


9 


220 






8 


552 








Random 


9 


112 


9 


979 


11 


060 








Glen 


8 


967 
















Cavell 


8 


963 
















Terra 


8 


589 
















Hinoat 


8 


095 
















Pendek 


7 


795 
















Sentinel 










11 


849 


13 


479 





23 



Table 16. Silage yield of oat cultivars and lines at Laeombe 
over 5 years, in kilograms per hectare 



Cultivar 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 



10 776 11 828 9 475 
7 899 

14 230 

10 320 

10 659 

10 882 

12 139 12 042 9 783 

11 828 12 194 9 752 
10 161 



Lamar 9 276 10 176 

Kalott 8 741 10 314 



Foothill 


10 


872 


11 039 


0A348-44 








OA330-60 








0A330-44 








1863-515 








2088-524 








Dula 


10 


429 


10 153 


Bianca 


10 


258 


8 061 


Alma 


10 


229 


11 154 


Natal 


9 


943 


9 400 


Vicar 


9 


803 


10 289 


Elgin 


9 


656 


7 594 


Leanda 


9 


572 


7 917 


Sioux 


8 


947 





24 



Table 17. Silage yield of oat cultivars and lines at 
Bluff ton, in kilograms per hectare 



Cultivar 1981 1982 1983 



Laurent 7487 4999 5750 

Harmon 8024 5295 5551 

Foothill 8685 6027 4126 

Hudson 8165 5183 5343 

Grizzly 

Victory 

Dula 7828 5283 3527 

Scott 7716 5655 5222 

Alma 7776 5248 5804 

Fraser 

Vicar 

Random 

OA330-60 

Sentinel 

Cascade 4820 5580 

OA330-44 6210 

1863-515 5716 

2088-524 6048 



7487 


4999 


8024 


5295 


8685 


6027 


8165 


5183 


7116 


5123 


7718 




7828 


5283 


7716 


5655 


7776 


5248 


7578 


5368 


7035 




7429 






6517 




5397 




4820 



25 



Table 18. Silage yield of barley cultivars at Lacombe over 5 
years, in kilograms per hectare 



Cultivar 


1979 


1980 




L981 


: 


L982 


1983 


Johnston 






9 


971 


9 


336 


9 


732 


9 794 


Empress 


















9 010 


Klages 


7 


341 


9 


348 


7 


408 


8 


614 


9 665 


Gait 


8 


170 


7 


573 


7 


177 








Hector 


7 


986 


10 


210 


6 


862 


7 


334 




Klondike 


6 


992 


8 


109 












Bonanza 


6 


547 


10 


700 


8 


343 


8 


931 


8 425 


Windsor 


7 


698 


10 


217 


7 


629 


9 


058 


8 538 


Betzes 


6 


967 


9 


203 












Conquest 






9 


099 












Centennial 


8 


467 


10 


131 


8 


512 


7 


415 


7 992 


Keystone 


7 


442 


10 


285 


7 


894 


8 


932 


9 786 


Unitan 


7 


026 


11 


511 


6 


963 


8 


241 




Fairfield 


6 


516 


10 


253 


7 


034 


8 


130 




Norbert 


















9 155 


Diamond 


















7 092 


Beacon 


6 


584 


9 


097 












Gateway 63 


6 


996 


8 


982 












Olli 


6 


451 




















26 



Table 19. Silage yield of barley cultivars at Bluff ton 
over 3 years, in kilograms per hectare 



Cultivar 


1981 


1982 


1983 


Johnston 


5780 


4395 


5664 


Centennial 


4616 


2249 


3557 


Windsor 


5289 


3148 


4511 


Bonanza 


4481 


2407 


3356 


Keystone 


4552 


3191 


4075 


Klages 


4960 


2734 


4233 


Unitan 


4639 


2982 




Hector 


4714 


2703 




Gait 


4227 






Fairfield 


4271 


2957 




Norbert 






3682 


Diamond 






4179 


Empress 






3633 



27 



Table 20. Silage yield of wheat, rye, and triticale cultivars 
at Lacombe, in kilograms per hectare 



Crop 


1980 


1981 


1982 


1983 


Red spring wheat 












Park 


9 


105 








Neepawa 


10 


579 


12 502 


10 831 


9 442 


Manitou 


9 


733 








Sinton 


10 


122 








Thatcher 


10 


562 


11 032 






Columbus 










10 094 


Utility wheat 












Glenlea 


10 


214 


11 533 


11 246 


9 753 


Pitic 


11 


304 


11 111 


10 680 




Fielder 


9 


566 








Durum wheat 












Wascana 


9 


970 








Wakooma 


11 


326 


10 478 


11 601 


11 521 


Coulter 


10 


168 








Triticale 












Rosner 


10 


027 


11 560 


11 512 


11 674 


Welsh 


9 


808 


10 915 


8 850 


9 142 


Triwell 


12 


831 


11 350 


13 468 


12 153 


Carman 










13 925 


Spring rye 












Gazelle 


10 


553 


11 017 


10 925 




Prolific 


9 


879 








Petkus I 


10 


923 








Petkus II 


11 


491 


10 908 


11 208 




Petkus III 


8 


782 









28 



Table 21. Silage yield of wheat, rye, and triticale 
cultivars at Bluff ton over 3 years, in kilograms per 
hectare 



Crop 1981 1982 1983 



Wheat 



Neepawa 


4914 


3045 


Glenlea 


5124 


2778 


Pitic 


5016 


3359 


Thatcher 


4582 




Wakooma 


4162 


3246 


Columbus 






Spring rye 






Gazelle 


4138 


2600 


Petkus II 


5337 


3431 


Triticale 






Triwell 


6300 


3961 


Rosner 


4388 


3171 


Welsh 


4712 


2251 


Carman 







3444 
3171 



2905 
3677 



5269 
5490 
4318 
5226 



29 

Table 22. Silage yield of sunflower cultivars at Lacombe over 5 years, in 
kilograms per hectare 

Cultivar 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 Average 

Sundak 7 713 4 222 8 090 13 477 14 499 9 600 

Sputnik 10 940 4 524 10 485 8 822 11 281 9 210 

Sungro 372A 11 719 8 958 11 205 11 257 15 231 11 674 

Sungro 380 12 944 8 939 9 628 13 011 11 130 

Kenya White 5 167 18 393 14 581 12 714 

Hybrid 894 5 911 11 891 

81-1110-2 

81-1421 

Jerusalem artichoke 5 115 3 585 

894 

82-245 

Dahlgren 135 

Super 500 



8 657 




8 820 


11 650 


16 687 


14 168 


14 081 


15 295 


14 688 
4 350 




13 194 


13 194 




9 354 


9 354 




17 892 


17 892 




17 358 


17 358 



30 



Table 23. Silage yield of faba bean at Lacombe over 4 years, 
in kilograms per hectare 



Cultivar 


1980 


1981 


1982 


1983 


4-year 
average 


Diana 


6 092 


11 110 


8 029 


10 417 


8 912 


Herz Freya 


6 441 


14 308 


13 054 


10 687 


11 122 


Aladin 


7 754 


8 581 


12 206 


11 076 


9 904 


Outlook 




13 053 


11 614 


11 401 


12 023 


Ackerperle 


4 553 








4 553 


Orion 


5 541 


10 724 


6 122 


8 335 


7 680 


Lacombe #3 


4 481 


9 578 


6 221 


9 061 


7 335 



31 



Table 24. Silage yield of faba bean at Bluff ton and Vegreville 
in kilograms per hectare 







Bluffton 




Vegr 
1982 


'eville 


Cultivar 


1981 


1982 


1983 


1983 


Diana 


3353 


5992 


3841 


4444 


2205 


Herz Freya 


4147 


6321 


3573 


6055 


2314 


Aladin 


2935 


7642 


4122 


6156 


2202 


Outlook 


2980 


7071 


3359 


5859 


2072 


Orion 


3827 


4637 


3630 


3677 


1348 


Lacombe 3 


3105 


4245 


3078 


4769 


1289 



32 



Table 25. Silage yield of pea cultivars at Lacombe over 4 
years, in kilograms per hectare 



Cultivar 


1980 


1981 


1982 


1983 


Tara 


6 955 


7 919 


10 373 


10 612 


Trapper 


6 610 


7 592 


11 417 


6 653 


Century 


5 713 


8 622 




8 566 


Lenca 




8 362 




7 289 


Triumph 




6 540 




5 730 



33 



Table 26. Silage yield of corn at Lacombe over 3 years, in 
kilograms per hectare 



Cultivars 


1981 


1982 


1983 


Stewart 3502 


15 


662 








Morden 7G 


11 


983 








Pride R102 


19 


786 






2 787 


G-4077 


11 


488 








Northrup King PX403 


11 


583 


10 


073 


3 446 


Pioneer 3995 






8 


556 


2 028 


AS« 






12 


670 




DeKalb 182 






11 


073 




Pickseed 2555 






10 


997 




Limagrain GLG223* 


10 


783 








Limagrain GLG152* 


10 


436 








Pioneer 3994 






10 


425 


3 025 


Limagrain 3* 






10 


146 


2 708 


EDO* 






10 


023 




Asgrow RX17 






9 


843 


2 891 


Cargill PAG501 






9 


836 




Pickseed 2111 






9 


631 




Limagrain 1* 






9 


503 




Br 180* 


9 


497 








Pioneer 3993 






9 


485 




KWS 130* 






9 


272 




DeKalb 23 






9 


045 




Pride 1108 






8 


225 




Hyland 2200 










3 272 


Pioneer 3996 










2 924 


Pride R097 










2 580 


Pickseed 2011 










3 435 



•European hybrids 



34 



Table 27. Silage yield of millets at Lacombe over 2 years, in 
kilograms per hectare 



Cultivar 


1981 


1982 


Average 


Proso millet 














NC 22-36 


10 


753 


7 


945 


9 


349 


NC 22-50 


10 


262 


7 


598 


8 


930 


NC 22-3 


9 


643 


6 


068 


7 


856 


NC 22-47 


8 


929 


6 


420 


7 


674 


NC 22-44/1 


8 


831 


5 


867 


7 


349 


NC 22-14 


8 


431 


6 


149 


7 


290 


NC 22-17 


8 


294 


5 


551 


6 


922 


NC 22-44 


8 


260 


5 


424 


6 


842 


NC 22-43 


8 


194 


5 


496 


6 


845 


NC 22-42 


6 


762 


5 


734 


6 


248 


Foxtail millet 














NC 21-9 


11 


386 


6 


536 


8 


961 


NC 21-10 


11 


258 


6 


192 


8 


725 


NC 21-43/1 


9 


698 


7 


406 


8 


552 


NC 21-42/1 


9 


032 


6 


072 


7 


552 


NC 21-41/1 


8 


534 


6 


471 


7 


502 


NC 21-35 


8 


115 


6 


183 


7 


149 


NC 21-21 


7 


831 


5 


465 


6 


648 


NC 21-20 


7 


384 


5 


122 


6 


253 



35 



Table 28. Forage yield of ryegrass cultivars at Lacombe over 3 
years, in kilograms per hectare 

















3-year 


Cultivar 


1981 




1982 


1983 


average 






Si 


Lage 


(two cuts) 








Lemtal 


10 


141 




7 627 


7 


183 


8 317 


Promenade 


10 


612 




11 210 


8 


750 


10 191 


Maris Ledger 


10 


935 




6 720 


8 


364 


8 673 


Merwester 


9 


277 




8 528 


8 


327 


8 711 






Hay (three cuts) 








Lemtal 


10 


494 




8 838 


4 


478 


7 937 


Promenade 


9 


873 




8 534 


4 


796 


7 734 


Maris Ledger 


9 


733 




9 276 


5 


373 


8 127 


Merwester 


8 


665 




9 867 


5 


891 


8 141 




Pasture 


( four or five i 


3Uts) 






Lemtal 


6 


389 




3 917 


3 


358 


4 555 


Promenade 


5 


996 




4 669 


3 


568 


4 744 


Maris Ledger 


7 


602 




5 006 


3 


362 


5 323 


Merwester 


5 


653 




5 217 


3 


564 


4 811 



36 



Table 29. Pasture yield of winter wheat, triticale, and fall 
rye at Lacombe in 1983, in kilograms per hectare 







Days from 


seeding to 


cut 


Crop 


71 


102 


147 


Total 


Sundance winter wheat 


1917 


1096 


432 


3446 


Winalta winter wheat 


1541 


1467 


607 


3616 


Norstar winter wheat 


1031 


1023 


324 


2379 


Kodiak fall rye 


1684 


828 


380 


2893 


Puma fall rye 


1260 


1008 


562 


2832 


Cougar fall rye 


1277 


1076 


624 


2978 


Frontier fall rye 


1246 


940 


505 


2692 


Wintri winter triticale 


975 


1054 


571 


2602 



37 



Table 30. Forage yield of brassica species at Lacombe in 1982 as dry 
matter, in kilograms per hectare 





Silage 
yield* 


Days to 
first cut 


Pasture yie 


ild 


Cultivar 


Cut It 


Cut 2* 


Total 


Maris Kestrel 


6078 


124 


2801 


372 


3173 


Merlin kale 


6961 


124 


2288 


258 


2546 


Bittern kale 


6588 


124 


1739 


33 


1772 


Condor kale 


9008 


124 


2953 





2953 


Tema kale 


7548 


124 


2610 


91 


2700 


Angerro kale 


6324 


124 


1047 


275 


1322 


English Marrowstem kale 


3296 


124 


902 


72 


974 


Brassica napus IR-022 


4976 


81 


4549t 


450 


4999 


Brassica napus sinus 


1526 


81 


308t 





308 


Nevin forage rape 


6450 


124 


5032 


454 


5486 


Appin grazing turnip 


4217 


124 


3646 


703 


4349 


Neris fodder radish 


4803 


81 


4590t 


489 


5079 


Rauola oilseed radish 


6677 


81 


6484t 





6484 


Dwarf Essex forage rape 


2770 


124 


1368 


364 


1732 


English Broadleaf 


6023 


124 


1458 





1458 


Candle canola 


4609 


81 


5005t 





5005 


Altex canola 


5207 


81 


5056t 


206 


5262 



* Cut on 1 October. 

t Cut on 29 July. Others in the same column cut on 10 September. 



38 



Table 31. Forage yield of brassica species at Lacombe in 1983 as dry 
matter, in kilograms per hectare 







Silage yield 




Ci 




; 


Pasture 


yield 


Cultivar 


Cut 1* 


Cut 2 


Total 


it It 




Cut 


2 ( 


:ut 3 


Total 


Maris Kestrel 


16 


780 





16 


780 


1 


808 




827 







2 635 


Merlin kale 


16 


698 





16 


698 


1 


214 


l 


189 







2 403 


Bittern kale 


11 


994 





11 


994 


2 


397 




531 







2 928 


Condor kale 


11 


697 





11 


697 


4 


529 




951 







5 480 


Tema kale 


10 


360 





10 


360 




950 




508 







1 458 


Nevin forage rape 


14 


044 





14 


044 


2 


788 




741 


1 


272 


4 801 


Appin grazing turnip 


15 


244 





15 


244 


2 


436 


l 


747 




813 


4 996 


Neris fodder radish 


10 


343* 


5 965 


16 


308 


2 


343 


l 


247 


1 


513 


5 103 


Altex canola 


9 


523* 


866 


10 


389 


2 


476 




462 


1 


884 


4 822 


Apoll oil radish 


13 


964» 


895 


14 


895 


3 


355 




389 


2 


492 


6 236 


Crail fodder radish 


15 


916 





15 


916 


2 


154 


l 


137 




953 


4 244 


Caron forage rape 


16 


630 





16 


630 


2 


585 




674 




711 


3 970 


Dinas forage rape 


24 


085 





24 


085 


2 


106 


l 


762 







3 868 


Tobin canola 


11 


385* 





11 


385 


1 


344 


l 


125 







2 469 


Gruner angiliter 


9 


205 





9 


205 




654 


l 


020 







1 674 



* Cut on 29 July. Others in same column cut on 14 September, 
t Cut on 4 July. 



LIBRARY B I B L ' O X <-l E Q L) E IB II 1 IB 

AGRICULTURE CANADA OTTAWA K1A 0C5 

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